HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE
Corpormon 4 I.U.; Nikken Japan
Crescormon (o.c.) 4 I.U.; Globopharm CH; Kabi GR, YU; Kabi Vitrurn U.S.
Crescormonn (o.c.) 4 I.U. Kabi-Fides ES
Genotr 2, 3, 4 I.U. Kabi pharmacia NO 16, 32 I.U.
Genotonorm 4 I.U. Kabi B; Kabipfrimmer ES
Genotropin 2 I.U. Kabi pharmacia S, BG, A, GR, NL
Genotropin 3 I.U. Kabi pharmacia 5, BG, A, GR, NL
Genotropin 3 I.U.; Kabi pharmacia G, DG, 5; BG, A, HU, PL, CZ GR, NL, CH, Fl, Pierrel I
Genotropin 12 I.U.; Kabi pharmacia S, DK, PT CZ, NO, CH
Genotropin 16 I.U; Kabi pharmacia G, DK, Fl, S, A, PT HU, GR,NL, CH
Geno, Kabi Quick 2, 3 1.U. Kabi Pharmacia G
Grorm (o.c.) 4 I.U. Serono G, CH, ES, I
Grorm 2, 4 I.U. Institutio farmacologio serono CZ
Humatrope 4 I.U. Lilly G, DK, ES, 5, GB, Fl, B, HU, GR, CZ, NO, NL, I Serum und Impfinstitut CH
Humatrope 5mg sol.; Lilly U.S.
Humatrope 16 I.U.; Lilly G, DK, Fl, GB, ES, GR, NO, NL, CH
Norditropin 4 I.U.; Nordisk PL; Nordisk Gentofte DK; Novo-Nordisk A, ES, 1, NO, Novo HU, Novo Industri BG
Norditropin 12 I.U.; Novo-Nordisk G, Fl; CH, NO, NL, ES Novo GB; FI, HU, Nordisk Gentofte DK;
Nordisk B, PL Novo Industri BG, CZ, Santa GR
Norditropin 24 I.U.; Novo Industri CZ, Novo HU, Fl, Santa GR Novo Nordisk NO, A, ES, DK, NL
Norditrop. Pen Set 24 I.U. Novo-Nordisk G
Nutropin 10 mg sol.; Genentech U.S.
Protropin 10 nig sol.: Genentech U.S.
Saizen 2 I.U. Serono G, CH, ES
Saizen 4 I.U. Serono G, A, CH, ES, 1, GB, GR, Fl, HU, FR, S, CZ
Saizen ES 10 LU. Serono S, Fl, GB, CH, CZ, HU, FR,
Somatohorm 4 I.U. Biomed PL
Somatohorm 4 I.U. Kabi-vitrum CZ, Kabi pharmacia ES, FR
Somat. Sero (o.c.) 4 LU. Serotherapeutisches Institut A
Zomacton 4,12 I.U. Ferring G
"Wow, is this great stuff. It is the best drug for permanent muscle gains. This is the only drug that can
remedy bad genetics, as it will make anybody grow. GH use is the biggest gamble that an athlete can
take, as the side effects are irreversible. Even with all that, we LOVE the stuff." (Daniel Duchaine,
Underground Steroid Handbook, 1982.)
As with no other doping drug, growth hormones are still surrounded by an aura of mystery. Some call it
a wonder drug which causes gigantic strength and muscle gains in the shortest time. Others con-sider it
completely useless in improving sports performance and ar-gue that it only promotes the growth
process in children with an early stunting of growth. Some are of the opinion that growth hor-mones in
adults cause severe bone deformities in the form of over-growth of the lower jaw and extremities. And, generally speaking, which growth hormones should one take -the human form, the synthetically
manufactured version, recombined or genetically pro-duced form- and in which dosage? All this
controversy about growth hormones is so complex that the reader must have some basic information in
order to understand them. The growth hor-mone is a polypeptide hormone consisting of 191 amino
acids. In humans it is produced in the hypophysis and released if there are the right stimuli (e.g.
training, sleep, stress, low blood sugar level). It is now important to understand that the freed HGH
(human growth hormone) itself has no direct effect but only stimulates the liver to produce and release
insulin-like growth factors and so-matomedins. These growth factors are then the ones that cause various
effects on the body The problem, however, is that the liver is only capable of producing a limited
amount of these substances so that the effect is limited. If growth hormones are injected they only
stimulate the liver to produce and release these substances and thus, as already mentioned, have no
During the mid 1980's only the human, biologically-active form was available as exogenous sour-cc of
intake. It was obtained from the hypophysis of dead corpses, an expensive and costly procedure. In
1985 the intake of human growth hormones was linked with the very rare Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, an
invariably fatal brain disease characterized by progressive dementia. In response, manufacturers
removed this version from the market. Today, human growth hor-mones are no longer available for
injection. Fortunately, science has not been asleep and has developed the synthetic growth hormone
which is genetically produced either from Escherichia coli (E coli) or from the transformed mouse cell
line. It has been available in nu-merous countries for years (see list with Trade Names .
The use of these STH somatotropic hormone compounds offers the athlete three performanceenhancing
effects. STH (somatotropic hormone) has a strong anabolic effect and causes an increased
pro-tein synthesis which manifests itself in a muscular hypertrophy (enlargement of muscle cells) and in
a muscular hyperplasia (in-crease of muscle cells.) The latter is very interesting since this in-crease
cannot be obtained by the intake of steroids. This is probably also the reason why STH is called the
strongest anabolic hormone. The second effect of STH is its pronounced influence on the burning of fat.
It turns more body fat into energy, leading to a drastic reduc-tion in fat or allowing the athlete to
increase his caloric intake. Third, and often overlooked, is the fact that STH strengthens the connective
tissue, tendons, and cartilages, which could be one of the main reasons for the significant increase in
strength experienced by many athletes. Several bodybuilders and powerlifters report that through the
simultaneous intake with steroids STH protects the athlete from injuries while increasing his strength.
You will say that this sounds just wonderful. What is the problem, however, since there are still some
who argue that STH offers nothing to athletes? There are, by all means, several athletes who have tried
STH and who were sadly disappointed by its results. However, as with many things in life, there is a
logical explanation or perhaps even more than one:
1.The athlete simply has not taken a sufficient amount of STH regularly and over a long enough period
of time. STH is a very expensive compound and an effective dosage is unaffordable by most people.
2.When using STH the body also needs more thyroid hormones, insulin, corticosteroids, gonadotropins,
estrogens and - what a surprise! - androgens and anabolics.
This is also the reason why STH, when taken alone, is considerably less effective and can only reach its optimum effect by the additive intake
of steroids, thyroid hormones, and insulin, in particular. But we must point out in this case that STH has
a predominately anabolic effect. There are three hormones which are needed at the same time in order
to allow for maximum anabolic effect. These are STH, insulin, and an LT-3 thyroid hormone, such as,
for example, Cytomel. Only then can the liver produce and release an optimal amount of somatomedin
and insulin-like growth factors. This anabolic effect can be further enhanced by taking a substance with
an anticatabolic effect. These substances are---everybody should probably know by nowanabolic/androgenic steroids or Clenbuterol. Then a synergetic effect takes place. Are you still
wondering why pro bodybuilders are so incredibly massive but, at the same time, totally ripped while
you are not? It is "Polypharmacy at its finest", as W Nathaniel Phillips described to the point in his
bookAnabolic Reference Guide (5th Issue, 1990). But coming back once more to the "anabolic
formula": STH, insulin, and L-T3. Most athletes have tried STH during preparation for a competition in
that phase when the diet is calorie-reduced. The body usually reacts by reducing the release of insulin
and of the L- T3 thyroid hormone. And, as was described under point 2, this is not an advantageous
condition when STH is expected to work well. Well, we almost forgot. Those who combine Clenbuterol
with STH should know that Clenbuterol (like Ephedrine) reduces the body's own release of insulin and
L-T3. True, this seems a little complicated and when reading it for the first time it might be a little
confusing; however it really is true: STH has a significant influence on several hormones in the human
body; this does not allow for a simple ad-ministration schedule. As said, STH is not cheap and those
who intend to use it should know a little more about it. If you only want to burn fat with STH you will only
have to remember user infor-mation for the part with the L-T3 thyroid hormone as is printed by Kabi
Pharmacia GmbH for their compound Genotropin: "The need of the thyroid hormone often increases
during treatment with growth hormones. "
3. Since most athletes who want to use STH can only obtain it if prescribed by a physician, the only
supply source remains the black market. And this is certainly another reason why some athletes might
not have been very happy with the effect of the purchased com-pound. How could he, if cheap HCG
was passed off as expensive STH? Since both compounds are available as dry substances, all that
would be needed is a new label of Serono's Saizen or Lilly's Humatrope on the HCG ampule. It is no
longer fun when somebody is paying $200 for 5000 I.U. of HCG, only worth $12, and thinking that he
just purchased 4 I.U. of STH. And if you think this happens only to novices and to the ignorant, ask Ben
Johnson. "Big Ben," who during three tests within five days showed an above-limit testosterone level,
was not a victim of his own stupidity but more likely the victim of fraud. 'According to statistics by the
German Drug Administration, 42% of the HGH vials confiscated on the North American black market
are fakes." (Der Spiegel, no. 11, 1993.) One can only say, "Poor Ben." Even Deutsche
Apothekerzeitung is aware of this problem. The magazine wrote in its issue no. 26 of 07/01/93 in the
article "Wachstumshormon--Praparate: Arzneimittelf5lschungen in Bodybuilder-Szene": "The currentlyknown
cases are traded with Dutch or Russian labels... in addition to a display of labels in the Dutch or
Russian lan-guage the fakes are distinguished from the original product, in-sofar as the dry substance
is not present as lyophilic but present as loose powder. The fakes confiscated so far use the name
"Humatrope 16" under the name of Lilly Company (with Dutch denomination) or "Somatogen" (in
Russian)." Nowhere can this much money be made except by faking STH. Who has ever held original
growth hormones in his hand and known how.they should look?
4. In a few very rare cases the body reacts by developing-antibodies to the exogenous STH, thus
making it ineffective.
Before discussing the extremely difficult matter of dosage and intake the following question suggests
itself: Generally speaking who is taking growth hormones? A whole lot of athletes as the following
quotation suggests: "Charlie Francis, the Canadian athletic trainer of Ben Johnson tells how he
improved the performance of Ben and numerous other Olympic athletes by the use of growth hormones
in 1983. Francis also had conclusive evidence that the U.S.-American field and track athletes were
using growth hormones. In a 1989 interview with a pro bodybuilder, an interview not meant for
publication, this massive athlete made clear that he was convinced that almost all professional top
athletes were using Protropin. He also said that it did not bother him if the IFBB were to introduce
doping tests for men in 1990 as long as there would be no testing for growth hormones (Anabolic
Reference Update, June 1989, no. 11).
"it is highly suspected that the top Ms. 0 competitors use this
product to help them attain their incredibly rippled muscles while still looking like women." (Anabolic
Reference Guide, 5th Issue, 1990, W N. Phillips.) Most top bodybuilders using Growth Hormone (GH)
feel that insulin activates it. One top pro was rumored to have been using 12 I. U. of GH per day in
preparation for his last WBF contest. He swears that GH only works with insulin." (Muscle Media 2000 '
October/ November 1993, no. 34.)"
And shortly before the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles, U.S.
researchers succeeded in synthetically manufacturing the hormone. This hormone which cannot be
detected with current testing methods immediately prepared American athletes throughout the country
for the games in California. After reports of success the drug became the secret runner on the doping
market. The football pro Lyle Alzado, who died of brain tumor, shortly before his death confessed that
he had taken HGH for 16 weeks - and he claimed that 80% of all American football pros do so, too. Ben
Johnson, who in 1988 in Seoul was caught with anabolics, admitted to the investigating committee of
the Canadian government that he had tried the Growth Hormone. He had paid $ 10,000 for ten bottles
of HGH. According to Johnson, his physician, George Astaphan, had also designed programs for his
colleagues Mark McKoy, Angella Issajenko, and Desai Williams. Hurdle sprinter Juli Rochelean who
toddy runs records for Switzerland under the name Baumann procured HGH on the black market of the
bodybuilder scene in Montreal... Among women Gail Devers won the 100 meters (1992 Olympic
Games in Barcelona, the auth.) after havingjust overcome a severe thyroid condition, a well-known side
effect of taking HGH. Such suspicions are reinforced by current market data. The two U.S. companies
Genentech and Eli Lilly produced about 800 million dollars of HGH in 1992. Genentech alone reported
an eleven percent production increase compared to last year. Chemists incessantly emphasize that the
drug should only be manufactured for use by persons with stunted growth.
The U.S.Food and Drug
Administration, however, sees it differently: the U.S. government currently includes HGH on the list of
forbidden drugs and 'threatens up to five years of,prison for illegal possession of the drug." (Der
Spiegel, no. I I of 03/15/93). "Many of the top strength athletes use HGH and the cost of its use ran as
high as $30,000/year for one particular pro bodybuilder. Short term users (8 week duration) will spend
up to $150 per daily dosage. And because the top athletes are rumored to use it, HGH lust in the lower
ranks has become more rampant." (Daniel Duchaine, Underground Steroid Handbook
The question of the right dosage, as well as the type and duration of application, Is very difficult to answer. Since there is no scientific research showing how STH should be taken for performance
improvement, we can only rely on empirical data, that is experimental values. The respective
manufacturers indicate that in cases of hypophysially stunted growth due to lacking or insufficient
release of growth hormones by the hypophysis, a weekly average dose of 0.3 I.U./week per pound of
body weight should be taken. An athlete weighing 200 pounds, therefore, would have to inject 60 I.U.
weekly. The dosage would be divided into three intramuscular injections of 20 I.U. each. Subcutaneous
injections (under the skin) are another form of intake which, however, would have to be injected daily,
usually 8 I.U. per day. Top athletes usually inject 4-16 I.U~day. Ordinarily, daily subcutaneous injections
are preferred Since STH has a half-life time of less than one hour, it is not surprising that some athletes
divide their daily dose into three or four subcutaueous injections of 2-4 I.U. each. Application of regular,
small dosages seems to bring the most effective results. This also has its reasons: When STH is
injected, serum concentration in the blood rises quickly, meaning that the effect is almost immediate. As
we know, STH stimulates the liver to produce and release somatomedins and insulin-like growth factors
which in turn effect the desired results in the body. Since the liver can only produce a limited amount of
these substances, we doubt that larger STH injections will induce the liver to produce instantaneously a
larger quantity of somatomedins and insulin-like growth factors. it seems more likely that the liver will
react more favorably to smaller dosages.
If the STH solution is injected subcutaneously several consecutive times at the same point of injection,
a loss of fat tissue is possible. Therefore, the point of injection, or even better, the entire side of the
body, should be continuously changed in order to avoid a loss of local fat tissue (lipoathrophy) in the
injection cell. One thing has manifested itself over the years: The effect of STH is dosage-dependent.
This means either invest a lot of money and do it right or do not even begin. Half-hearted attempts are
condemned to failure. Minimum effective dosages seem to start at 4 I.U. per day. For comparison: the
hypophysis of a healthy, adult releases 0.5-1.5 I.U. growth hormones daily. The duration of intake
usually depends on the athlete's financial resources. Our experience is that STH is taken over a
prolonged period, from at least six weeks to several months. It is interesting to note that the effect of
STH does not stop after a few weeks; this usually allows for continued improvements at a steady
dosage. Bodybuilders who have had positive results with STH have reported that the built-up strength
and, in particular, the newlygained muscle system were essentially maintained after discontinuance of
the product. The American physician, Dr. William N. Taylor, confirms this statement in his book
Anabolic Steroids and the Athlete, where on page 75 he writes: "Evidence for increased muscle number
(hyperplasia) in athletes stems from their statements that the increased muscular size and strength
remain after the HGH therapy has been discontinued. In fact, there may be further muscular size and
strength gains as the training-induced hypertrophy continues in the month beyond."
It remains to be clarified what happens with the insulin and LT-3 thyroid hormone. Athletes who take -
STH in their build-up phase usually do not need exogenous insulin. It is recommended, in this case,
that the athlete eats a complete meal every three hours, result ing in 6-7 meals daily. This causes the
body to continuously release insulin so that the blood sugar level does not fall too low. The use of LT-3
thyroid hormones, in this phase, is carried out reluctantly by athletes. In any case, you must have a
physician check the thyroid hormone level during the intake of STH. Simultaneous use of ana
bolic/androgenic steroids and/or Clenbuterol is usually appropri ate. During the preparation for a competition the use of thyroid hormones steadily increases. Sometimes insulin is taken together with
STH, as well as with steroids and Clenbuterol. Apart from the high damage potential that exogenous
insulin can-have in non-diabetics, incorrect use will simply and plainly make you FAT! Too much insulin
activates certain enzymes which convert glucose into glycerol and finally into triglyceride. Too little
insulin, especially dur ing a diet, reduces the anabolic effect of STH.
The solution to this dilemma-
Visiting a qualified physician who advises the athlete during this undertaking and who, in the event of
exogenous in sulin supply, checks the blood sugar level and urine periodically. According to what we
have heard so far, athletes usually inject intermediately-effective insulin having a maximum duration of
effect of 24 hours once a day. Human insulin such as Depot-H Insulin Hoechst is generally used.
Briefly-effective insulin with a maximum duration of effect of eight hours is rarely used by athletes.
Again a human insulin such as H-Insulin Hoechst is preferred.
The undesired effect of growth hormones, the so-called side effects, are also a very interesting and
hotly-discussed issue. Above all it must be said: STH has none of the typical side effects of anabolic/
androgenic steroids including reduced endogenous testosterone production, acne, hair loss,
aggressiveness, elevated estrogen level, virilization symptoms in women, and increased water and salt
retention. The main side effects that are possible with STH are an abnormally small concentration of
glucose in the Wood (hypoglycemia) and an inadequate thyroid function. In some cases antibodies
against growth hormones are developed but are clinically irrelevant. What about the horror stories
about Acromegaly, bone deformation, heart enlargement, organ conditions, gigantism, and early death-
In order to answer this question a clear differentiation must be made between humans before and after
puberty. The growth plates in a person continue to grow in length until puberty.
After puberty neither an
endogenous hypersection of growth hormones nor an excessive exogenous supply of STH can cause
additional growth in the length of the bones. Abnormal size (gigantism) initially goes hand in hand with
remarkable body strength and muscular hardness in the afflicted; later, if left untreated, it ends in
weakness and death. Again, this is only possible in pre-pubescent humans who also suffer from an
inadequate gonadal function (hypogonadism). Humans who suffer from an endogenous hypersecretion
after puberty and whose normal growth is completed can also suffer from Acromegaly.
wider but not longer. There is a progressive growth in the hands and feet, and enlargement of features
due to the growth of the lower jaw and nose. Heart muscle and kidneys can also gain in weight and
size. In the beginning all of this goes hand in hand with increased body strength and muscular
hardness; it ends, however, in fatigue, weakness, diabetes, heart conditions, and early death.
What the authorities like to do now is to present extreme cases of athletes suffering from these
malfunctions in order to discourage others and to drum into athletes the fact that with the exogenous
supply of growth hormones they would suffer the same destiny This, however, is very unlikely, as reality
has proven. Among the numerous athletes using STH comparatively few are seven feet tall
Neanderthalers with a protruded lower jaw, deformed skull, clawlike hands, thick lips, and prominent
bone plates who walk around in size 25 shoes in order to avoid any misunderstandings, we do not want
to disguise the possible risks of exogenous STH use in adults and healthy humans, but one should at
least try to be open-minded. Acromegaly, diabetes, thyroid insufficiency, heart muscle hypertrophy, high
blood pressure, and enlargement of the kidneys are theoretically possible if STH is used excessively
over prolonged periods of time; however, in reality and particularly when it comes to the external attributes, these are rarely present.
Tests have shown no causal relation between treatment with
somatropin and a possible higher risk of leukemia. Some athletes report headaches, nausea, vomiting,
and visual disturbances during the first weeks of intake. These symptoms disappear in most cases
even with continued intake. The most common problems with STH occur when the athlete intends to
inject insulin in addition to STH.
We know two competing German bodybuilders who, because of
improper insulin injections, fell into comas lasting several weeks.
The substance somatropin is available as a dried powder and before injecting it must be mixed with the
enclosed solution-containing ampule. The ready solution must be injected immediately or stored in the
refrigerator for up to 24 hours. It is usually recommended that the compound be stored in the
refrigerator. With the exception of the remedy Saizcn the biological activity of growth hormones is
usually not impaired when storing the dry substance at 15-25C (room temperature); however, a cooler
place (2-8 C is preferable. On the black market the price for 4 I.U. each of the compounds Genotropin,
Humatrope, Norditropin, and Saizen, in Europe is $80 - 120 for a prick-through vial including the
solution ampule. As already mentioned, there are many fakes. It is noted that for the U.S.-American
growth hormone compounds, the substance con tent is not given in 1-U. (International Units) but in mg
(milligrams). Since I mg corresponds to exactly 2.7 I.U. the 5 mg solution of the compound Humatrope
by Lilly contains exactly 13.5 I.U. of Somatropin.
The 10 mg solution of the Protropin compound by
Genentech therefore contains 27 I.U. of Somatropin. In American powerlifting and bodybuilding circles
Humatrope is usually preferred over Protropin. The reason is that Humatrope is synthesized from a
chain of 191 amino acids and thus is identical to the amino acid sequence of the human growth
hormone. Protropin, on the other hand, consists of 192 amino acids, one amino acid too many. This
might be the explanation for why more antibodies are developed with Protropin than with Humatrope.
Growth hormones are on the doping list but they are not yet detectable during doping tests.
HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE